Table of Contents

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Foreword to this version of the Ada Reference Manual



1. General

1.1 Scope

1.1.1 Extent
1.1.2 Structure
1.1.3 Conformity of an Implementation with the Standard
1.1.4 Method of Description and Syntax Notation
1.1.5 Classification of Errors

1.2 Normative References

1.3 Definitions

2. Lexical Elements

2.1 Character Set

2.2 Lexical Elements, Separators, and Delimiters

2.3 Identifiers

2.4 Numeric Literals

2.4.1 Decimal Literals
2.4.2 Based Literals

2.5 Character Literals

2.6 String Literals


2.8 Pragmas

2.9 Reserved Words

3. Declarations and Types

3.1 Declarations

3.2 Types and Subtypes

3.2.1 Type Declarations
3.2.2 Subtype Declarations
3.2.3 Classification of Operations

3.3 Objects and Named Numbers

3.3.1 Object Declarations
3.3.2 Number Declarations

3.4 Derived Types and Classes

3.4.1 Derivation Classes

3.5 Scalar Types

3.5.1 Enumeration Types
3.5.2 Character Types
3.5.3 Boolean Types
3.5.4 Integer Types
3.5.5 Operations of Discrete Types
3.5.6 Real Types
3.5.7 Floating Point Types
3.5.8 Operations of Floating Point Types
3.5.9 Fixed Point Types
3.5.10 Operations of Fixed Point Types

3.6 Array Types

3.6.1 Index Constraints and Discrete Ranges
3.6.2 Operations of Array Types
3.6.3 String Types

3.7 Discriminants

3.7.1 Discriminant Constraints
3.7.2 Operations of Discriminated Types

3.8 Record Types

3.8.1 Variant Parts and Discrete Choices

3.9 Tagged Types and Type Extensions

3.9.1 Type Extensions
3.9.2 Dispatching Operations of Tagged Types
3.9.3 Abstract Types and Subprograms

3.10 Access Types

3.10.1 Incomplete Type Declarations
3.10.2 Operations of Access Types

3.11 Declarative Parts

3.11.1 Completions of Declarations

4. Names and Expressions

4.1 Names

4.1.1 Indexed Components
4.1.2 Slices
4.1.3 Selected Components
4.1.4 Attributes

4.2 Literals

4.3 Aggregates

4.3.1 Record Aggregates
4.3.2 Extension Aggregates
4.3.3 Array Aggregates

4.4 Expressions

4.5 Operators and Expression Evaluation

4.5.1 Logical Operators and Short-circuit Control Forms
4.5.2 Relational Operators and Membership Tests
4.5.3 Binary Adding Operators
4.5.4 Unary Adding Operators
4.5.5 Multiplying Operators
4.5.6 Highest Precedence Operators

4.6 Type Conversions

4.7 Qualified Expressions

4.8 Allocators

4.9 Static Expressions and Static Subtypes

4.9.1 Statically Matching Constraints and Subtypes

5. Statements

5.1 Simple and Compound Statements - Sequences of Statements

5.2 Assignment Statements

5.3 If Statements

5.4 Case Statements

5.5 Loop Statements

5.6 Block Statements

5.7 Exit Statements

5.8 Goto Statements

6. Subprograms

6.1 Subprogram Declarations

6.2 Formal Parameter Modes

6.3 Subprogram Bodies

6.3.1 Conformance Rules
6.3.2 Inline Expansion of Subprograms

6.4 Subprogram Calls

6.4.1 Parameter Associations

6.5 Return Statements

6.6 Overloading of Operators

7. Packages

7.1 Package Specifications and Declarations

7.2 Package Bodies

7.3 Private Types and Private Extensions

7.3.1 Private Operations

7.4 Deferred Constants

7.5 Limited Types

7.6 User-Defined Assignment and Finalization

7.6.1 Completion and Finalization

8. Visibility Rules

8.1 Declarative Region

8.2 Scope of Declarations

8.3 Visibility

8.4 Use Clauses

8.5 Renaming Declarations

8.5.1 Object Renaming Declarations
8.5.2 Exception Renaming Declarations
8.5.3 Package Renaming Declarations
8.5.4 Subprogram Renaming Declarations
8.5.5 Generic Renaming Declarations

8.6 The Context of Overload Resolution

9. Tasks and Synchronization

9.1 Task Units and Task Objects

9.2 Task Execution - Task Activation

9.3 Task Dependence - Termination of Tasks

9.4 Protected Units and Protected Objects

9.5 Intertask Communication

9.5.1 Protected Subprograms and Protected Actions
9.5.2 Entries and Accept Statements
9.5.3 Entry Calls
9.5.4 Requeue Statements

9.6 Delay Statements, Duration, and Time

9.7 Select Statements

9.7.1 Selective Accept
9.7.2 Timed Entry Calls
9.7.3 Conditional Entry Calls
9.7.4 Asynchronous Transfer of Control

9.8 Abort of a Task - Abort of a Sequence of Statements

9.9 Task and Entry Attributes

9.10 Shared Variables

9.11 Example of Tasking and Synchronization

10. Program Structure and Compilation Issues

10.1 Separate Compilation

10.1.1 Compilation Units - Library Units
10.1.2 Context Clauses - With Clauses
10.1.3 Subunits of Compilation Units
10.1.4 The Compilation Process
10.1.5 Pragmas and Program Units
10.1.6 Environment-Level Visibility Rules

10.2 Program Execution

10.2.1 Elaboration Control

11. Exceptions

11.1 Exception Declarations

11.2 Exception Handlers

11.3 Raise Statements

11.4 Exception Handling

11.4.1 The Package Exceptions
11.4.2 Example of Exception Handling

11.5 Suppressing Checks

11.6 Exceptions and Optimization

12. Generic Units

12.1 Generic Declarations

12.2 Generic Bodies

12.3 Generic Instantiation

12.4 Formal Objects

12.5 Formal Types

12.5.1 Formal Private and Derived Types
12.5.2 Formal Scalar Types
12.5.3 Formal Array Types
12.5.4 Formal Access Types

12.6 Formal Subprograms

12.7 Formal Packages

12.8 Example of a Generic Package

13. Representation Issues

13.1 Operational and Representation Items

13.2 Pragma Pack

13.3 Operational and Representation Attributes

13.4 Enumeration Representation Clauses

13.5 Record Layout

13.5.1 Record Representation Clauses
13.5.2 Storage Place Attributes
13.5.3 Bit Ordering

13.6 Change of Representation

13.7 The Package System

13.7.1 The Package System.Storage_Elements
13.7.2 The Package System.Address_To_Access_Conversions

13.8 Machine Code Insertions

13.9 Unchecked Type Conversions

13.9.1 Data Validity
13.9.2 The Valid Attribute

13.10 Unchecked Access Value Creation

13.11 Storage Management

13.11.1 The Max_Size_In_Storage_Elements Attribute
13.11.2 Unchecked Storage Deallocation
13.11.3 Pragma Controlled

13.12 Pragma Restrictions

13.13 Streams

13.13.1 The Package Streams
13.13.2 Stream-Oriented Attributes

13.14 Freezing Rules

The Standard Libraries

A. Predefined Language Environment

A.1 The Package Standard

A.2 The Package Ada

A.3 Character Handling

A.3.1 The Package Characters
A.3.2 The Package Characters.Handling
A.3.3 The Package Characters.Latin_1

A.4 String Handling

A.4.1 The Package Strings
A.4.2 The Package Strings.Maps
A.4.3 Fixed-Length String Handling
A.4.4 Bounded-Length String Handling
A.4.5 Unbounded-Length String Handling
A.4.6 String-Handling Sets and Mappings
A.4.7 Wide_String Handling

A.5 The Numerics Packages

A.5.1 Elementary Functions
A.5.2 Random Number Generation
A.5.3 Attributes of Floating Point Types
A.5.4 Attributes of Fixed Point Types

A.6 Input-Output

A.7 External Files and File Objects

A.8 Sequential and Direct Files

A.8.1 The Generic Package Sequential_IO
A.8.2 File Management
A.8.3 Sequential Input-Output Operations
A.8.4 The Generic Package Direct_IO
A.8.5 Direct Input-Output Operations

A.9 The Generic Package Storage_IO

A.10 Text Input-Output

A.10.1 The Package Text_IO
A.10.2 Text File Management
A.10.3 Default Input, Output, and Error Files
A.10.4 Specification of Line and Page Lengths
A.10.5 Operations on Columns, Lines, and Pages
A.10.6 Get and Put Procedures
A.10.7 Input-Output of Characters and Strings
A.10.8 Input-Output for Integer Types
A.10.9 Input-Output for Real Types
A.10.10 Input-Output for Enumeration Types

A.11 Wide Text Input-Output

A.12 Stream Input-Output

A.12.1 The Package Streams.Stream_IO
A.12.2 The Package Text_IO.Text_Streams
A.12.3 The Package Wide_Text_IO.Text_Streams

A.13 Exceptions in Input-Output

A.14 File Sharing

A.15 The Package Command_Line

B. Interface to Other Languages

B.1 Interfacing Pragmas

B.2 The Package Interfaces

B.3 Interfacing with C

B.3.1 The Package Interfaces.C.Strings
B.3.2 The Generic Package Interfaces.C.Pointers

B.4 Interfacing with COBOL

B.5 Interfacing with Fortran

C. Systems Programming

C.1 Access to Machine Operations

C.2 Required Representation Support

C.3 Interrupt Support

C.3.1 Protected Procedure Handlers
C.3.2 The Package Interrupts

C.4 Preelaboration Requirements

C.5 Pragma Discard_Names

C.6 Shared Variable Control

C.7 Task Identification and Attributes

C.7.1 The Package Task_Identification
C.7.2 The Package Task_Attributes

D. Real-Time Systems

D.1 Task Priorities

D.2 Priority Scheduling

D.2.1 The Task Dispatching Model
D.2.2 The Standard Task Dispatching Policy

D.3 Priority Ceiling Locking

D.4 Entry Queuing Policies

D.5 Dynamic Priorities

D.6 Preemptive Abort

D.7 Tasking Restrictions

D.8 Monotonic Time

D.9 Delay Accuracy

D.10 Synchronous Task Control

D.11 Asynchronous Task Control

D.12 Other Optimizations and Determinism Rules

E. Distributed Systems

E.1 Partitions

E.2 Categorization of Library Units

E.2.1 Shared Passive Library Units
E.2.2 Remote Types Library Units
E.2.3 Remote Call Interface Library Units

E.3 Consistency of a Distributed System

E.4 Remote Subprogram Calls

E.4.1 Pragma Asynchronous
E.4.2 Example of Use of a Remote Access-to-Class-Wide Type

E.5 Partition Communication Subsystem

F. Information Systems

F.1 Machine_Radix Attribute Definition Clause

F.2 The Package Decimal

F.3 Edited Output for Decimal Types

F.3.1 Picture String Formation
F.3.2 Edited Output Generation
F.3.3 The Package Text_IO.Editing
F.3.4 The Package Wide_Text_IO.Editing

G. Numerics

G.1 Complex Arithmetic

G.1.1 Complex Types
G.1.2 Complex Elementary Functions
G.1.3 Complex Input-Output
G.1.4 The Package Wide_Text_IO.Complex_IO

G.2 Numeric Performance Requirements

G.2.1 Model of Floating Point Arithmetic
G.2.2 Model-Oriented Attributes of Floating Point Types
G.2.3 Model of Fixed Point Arithmetic
G.2.4 Accuracy Requirements for the Elementary Functions
G.2.5 Performance Requirements for Random Number Generation
G.2.6 Accuracy Requirements for Complex Arithmetic

H. Safety and Security

H.1 Pragma Normalize_Scalars

H.2 Documentation of Implementation Decisions

H.3 Reviewable Object Code

H.3.1 Pragma Reviewable
H.3.2 Pragma Inspection_Point

H.4 Safety and Security Restrictions

J. Obsolescent Features

J.1 Renamings of Ada 83 Library Units

J.2 Allowed Replacements of Characters

J.3 Reduced Accuracy Subtypes

J.4 The Constrained Attribute


J.6 Numeric_Error

J.7 At Clauses

J.7.1 Interrupt Entries

J.8 Mod Clauses

J.9 The Storage_Size Attribute

K. Language-Defined Attributes

L. Language-Defined Pragmas

M. Implementation-Defined Characteristics

N. Glossary

P. Syntax Summary


Copyright © 1992,1993,1994,1995 Intermetrics, Inc.
Copyright © 2000 The MITRE Corporation, Inc. Ada Reference Manual